Data Sources

The data sources currently being used in the model are listed here.


Core Functions


  1. National Statistical Office (NSO), ICF Macro. Malawi Demographic and Health Survey 2010. Zomba, Malawi, and Calverton, Maryland, USA: NSO and ICF Macro, 2011. (for 2011;

  2. National Statistical Office (NSO) [Malawi], ICF. Malawi Demographic and Health Survey 2015-16. Zomba, Malawi, and Rockville, Maryland, USA: NSO and ICF, 2017. (for 2016;

  3. National Statistical Office (NSO). 2018 Malawi Population and Housing Census. Zomba, Malawi: National Statistical Office, 2019. (for 2019;

  4. 2018 Malawi Population and Housing National Statistical Office May 2019 Main Report (for 2019;

  5. Chasimpha et al. Patterns and risk factors for deaths from external causes in rural Malawi over 10 years: a prospective population-based study. BMC Public Health (2015) 15:1036 DOI 10.1186/s12889-015-2323-z (for 2015;

  6. Malawi Population and House Census Main Report. National Statistical Office. May 2019, Lilongwe (for 2019;

  7. World Population Prospects 2019. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (for 2019;

  8. Global Burden of Disease Collaborative Network. Global Burden of Disease Study 2017 (GBD 2017) Results (for 2017;

Healthcare-Seeking Behaviour

  1. Ng’ambi et al. A cross-sectional study on factors associated with health seeking behaviour of Malawians aged 15+ years in 2016. (for 2021;

  2. Ng’ambi et al. Factors associated with healthcare seeking behaviour for children in Malawi: 2016 (for 2020;

  3. Fourth Integrated Household Survey 2016-2017 (for 2017;

  4. Fifth Integrated Household Survey 2019-2020 (for 2020;

Lifestyle Risk Factors

  1. Price A, et al. Prevalence of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes, and cascade of care in sub-Saharan Africa: a cross-sectional,population-based study in rural and urban Malawi. Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinol 2018; 6: 208–22 (for 2018)

  2. Msyamboza et al; The Burden of Selected Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases and Their Risk Factors in Malawi: Nationwide STEPS Survey 2011 PLoS One (for 2011)

  3. Msyamboza et al; The burden of hypertension and its risk factors in Malawi: nationwide population-based STEPS survey. International Health 4 (2012) 246–252 (for 2012)

  4. WHO 2014 report (for 2014)

  5. Amberbir et al. Systematic Review of Hypertension and Diabetes Burden, Risk Factors, and Interventions for Prevention and Control in Malawi The NCD BRITE Consortium. Global Heart 2019 (for 2019)

  6. Abas MA, Broadhead JC. Depression and anxiety among women in an urban setting in Zimbabwe. Psychological Medicine Jan 1997 Volume: 27 Issue: 1 Pages: 59-71 DOI: 10.1017/S0033291796004163 (for 1997;

Healthcare System

Human Resources

  1. Government of Malawi, Ministry of Health and Population: Human Resources for Health Strategic Plan 2018-2022 (for 2018)

  2. Draft Final Report of the Analysis of Human Resources for Health in Malawi through Implementation of a WISN Study in 75 Facilities. Washington DC: World Bank. License: Creative Commons Attribution CC BY 3.0 (for 2017;

Other Resources

  1. Malawi - Harmonized Health Facility Assessment : 2018-2019 Report : Main Report (English). Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group. (for 2019;

  2. Government of Malawi: Health Sector Strategic Plan II 2017-2022 (for 2017;

  3. Malawi Harmonized Health Facility Assessment (HHFA) 2018-2019 : District Profiles (English). Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group. (for 2019;

  4. Malawi - Harmonized Health Facility Assessment : 2018-2019 Report (Vol. 2) : Short Report (English). Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group. (for 2019;

  5. Malawi - Harmonized Health Facility Assessment : 2018-2019 Report (Vol. 3) : Malawi Master Health Facility List (English). Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group. (for 2019;

  6. Closing the Gap : Why Achieving Universal Health Coverage in Malawi Now Requires Targeted Investment in Underperforming and Underserved Districts (English). Policy Brief Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group. (for 2020;

  7. Harnessing Momentum : Priority Areas of Intervention to Further Strengthen Malawi’s Health Sector (English). Policy Brief Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group. (for 2020;

  8. Ministry of Health and Population, Malawi. OpenLMIS version 3.0, 2018 (NB. Not publicly available) (for 2018;

Contraception, Pregnancy and Labour

Care of Women During Pregnancy

  1. Malawi Ministry of Health. Malawi Standard Treatment Guidelines (MSTG) Incorporating Malawi Essential Medicines List (MEML). 2015. (for 2015;

  2. The Association of Obstetricians & Gynaecologists of Malawi. Obstetrics & Gynaecology Protocols and Guidelines. 2014;(September):1–105. (for 2014;

  3. Ministry of Health Malawi, ICF internatational. Malawi Service Provision Assessment 2013-14. 2014. (for 2014;

  4. Ministry of Health Malawi. Malawi Harmonised Health Facility Assessment (HHFA) 2018/2019 Report. 2019. (for 2019)

  5. Government of Malawi. 2012 GLOBAL AIDS RESPONSE PROGRESS REPORT: Malawi Country Report for 2010 and 2011. 2012. (for 2012;[1].pdf)

  6. Government of Malawi. Global AIDS Response Progress Report (GARPR) Malawi Progress Report for 2013 31 st. 2014. (for 2014;

  7. Titilayo A, Palamuleni ME, Omisakin O. Sociodemographic factors influencing adherence to antenatal iron supplementation recommendations among pregnant women in Malawi: Analysis of data from the 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey. Malawi Med J. 2016 Mar 1;28(1):1–5. (for 2016;

  8. Ba DM, Ssentongo P, Kjerulff KH, Na M, Liu G, Gao X, et al. Adherence to Iron Supplementation in 22 Sub-Saharan African Countries and Associated Factors among Pregnant Women: A Large Population-Based Study. Curr Dev Nutr. 2019 Oct 21;3(12). (for 2019;

  9. Owili PO, Muga MA, Mendez BR, Chen B. Quality of care in six sub-Saharan Africa countries: A provider-based study on adherence to WHO’s antenatal care guideline. Int J Qual Heal Care. 2019 Feb 1;31(1):43–8. (for 2019;

  10. McHenga M, Burger R, Von Fintel D. Examining the impact of WHO’s Focused Antenatal Care policy on early access, underutilisation and quality of antenatal care services in Malawi: A retrospective study. BMC Health Serv Res. 2019 May 8;19(1). (for 2019;

  11. Stones W, Peno WW. Access to antenatal blood pressure measurement in Malawi: Findings from a national census of health facilities. Malawi Med J. 2018 Sep 1;30(3):141–5. (for 2018;

  12. Peña-Rosas JP, De-Regil LM, Garcia-Casal MN, Dowswell T. Daily oral iron supplementation during pregnancy. Vol. 2015, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. John Wiley and Sons Ltd; 2015. p. 1–527. (for 2015;

  13. Abalos E, Duley L, Steyn DW, Gialdini C. Antihypertensive drug therapy for mild to moderate hypertension during pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Oct 1;2018(10). (for 2018;

  14. Pollard SL, Mathai M, Walker N. Estimating the impact of interventions on cause-specific maternal mortality: A Delphi approach. Vol. 13, BMC Public Health. BioMed Central; 2013. p. S12. (for 2013;

  15. Hofmeyr GJ, Lawrie TA, Atallah ÁN, Torloni MR. Calcium supplementation during pregnancy for preventing hypertensive disorders and related problems. Vol. 2018, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. John Wiley and Sons Ltd; 2018. (for 2018;

  16. Ota E, Hori H, Mori R, Tobe-Gai R, Farrar D. Antenatal dietary education and supplementation to increase energy and protein intake. Vol. 2015, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. John Wiley and Sons Ltd; 2015. (for 2015;

  17. Karnjanapiboonwong A, Anothaisintawee T, Chaikledkaew U, Dejthevaporn C, Attia J, Thakkinstian A. Diagnostic performance of clinic and home blood pressure measurements compared with ambulatory blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2020 Dec 1;20(1):1–17. (for 2020;

  18. Gangaram R, Ojwang PJ, Moodley J, Maharaj D. The accuracy of urine dipsticks as a screening test for proteinuria in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Hypertens Pregnancy. 2005 Jan 1;24(2):117–23. (for 2005;


  1. National Statistical Office (NSO), ICF Macro. Malawi Demographic and Health Survey 2010. Zomba, Malawi, and Calverton, Maryland, USA: NSO and ICF Macro, 2011. (for 2011;

  2. National Statistical Office (NSO) [Malawi], ICF. Malawi Demographic and Health Survey 2015-16. Zomba, Malawi, and Rockville, Maryland, USA: NSO and ICF, 2017. (for 2016;

  3. National Statistical Office (NSO). 2018 Malawi Population and Housing Census. Zomba, Malawi: National Statistical Office, 2019. (for 2019;

  4. Polis CB, Bradley SEK, Bankole A, Onda T, Croft T, Singh S. Contraceptive Failure Rates in the Developing World: An Analysis of Demographic and Health Survey Data in 43 Countries. New York: Guttmacher Institute, 2016 (for 2016;

  5. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division. World Population Prospects 2019, Volume I: Comprehensive Tables (ST/ESA/SER.A/426).. 2019. (for 2019;


  1. Beltman J, Van Den Akker T, Van Lonkhuijzen L, Schmidt A, Chidakwani R, Van Roosmalen J. Beyond maternal mortality: Obstetric hemorrhage in a Malawian district. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2011;90(12):1423–7. (for 2011;

  2. Bonet M, Brizuela V, Abalos E, Cuesta C, Baguiya A, Chamillard M, et al. Frequency and management of maternal infection in health facilities in 52 countries (GLOSS): a 1-week inception cohort study. Lancet Glob Heal. 2020 May 1;8(5):e661–71. A (for 2020;

  3. van den Akker T, de Vroome S, Mwagomba B, Ford N, van Roosmalen J. Peripartum Infections and Associated Maternal Mortality in Rural Malawi. Obstet Gynecol. 2011 Aug;118(2):266–72. (for 2011;

  4. Duffy CR, Moore JL, Saleem S, Tshefu A, Bose CL, Chomba E, et al. Malpresentation in low- and middle-income countries: Associations with perinatal and maternal outcomes in the Global Network. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2019 Mar 1;98(3):300–8. (for 2019;

  5. Delafield R, Pirkle CM, Dumont A. Predictors of uterine rupture in a large sample of women in Senegal and Mali: cross-sectional analysis of QUARITE trial data. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2018;18(1):432. (for 2018;

  6. Toh-Adam R, Srisupundit K, Tongsong T. Short stature as an independent risk factor for cephalopelvic disproportion in a country of relatively small-sized mothers. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2012 Jun;285(6):1513–6. (for 2012;

  7. Tsvieli O, Sergienko R, Sheiner E. Risk factors and perinatal outcome of pregnancies complicated with cephalopelvic disproportion: A population-based study. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2012 Apr;285(4):931–6. (for 2012;

  8. Seaward PG, Hannah ME, Myhr TL, Farine D, Ohlsson A, Wang EE, et al. International multicentre term prelabor rupture of membranes study: Evaluation of predictors of clinical chorioamnionitis and postpartum fever in patients with prelabor rupture of membranes at term. In: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Mosby Inc.; 1997. p. 1024–9. A (for 1997;

  9. Ende HB, Lozada MJ, Chestnut DH, Osmundson SS, Walden RL, Shotwell MS, et al. Risk Factors for Atonic Postpartum Hemorrhage: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Obstet Gynecol. 2021 Feb 1;137(2):305–23. (for 2021;

  10. Begley, C. M. et al. (2019) ‘Active versus expectant management for women in the third stage of labour’, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, (2). doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD007412.pub5. (for 2019;

  11. Roberts, D. et al. (2017) ‘Antenatal corticosteroids for accelerating fetal lung maturation for women at risk of preterm birth’, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. John Wiley and Sons Ltd. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD004454.pub3. (for 2017;,reduces%20the%20risk%20of%20IVH.)

  12. Blencowe, H. et al. (2011) ‘Clean birth and postnatal care practices to reduce neonatal deaths from sepsis and tetanus: A systematic review and Delphi estimation of mortality effect’, BMC Public Health. BioMed Central Ltd, 11(SUPPL. 3), p. S11. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-S3-S11. (for 2011;

  13. Gallos ID, Papadopoulou A, Man R, Athanasopoulos N, Tobias A, Price MJ, et al. Uterotonic agents for preventing postpartum haemorrhage: A network meta-analysis. Vol. 2018, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. John Wiley and Sons Ltd; 2018. (for 2018;


  1. Mkandawire M, Kaunda E. An Audit of Congenital Anomalies in the Neonatal Unit of Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital. One-Year Study Period: 1st November 2000 to 31st October 2001. Vol. 7, East and Central African Journal of Surgery. 2016 Jun. (for 2016;

  2. Kalanda BF, van Buuren S, Verhoeff FH, Brabin BJ. Anthropometry of Malawian live births between 35 and 41 weeks of gestation. Ann Hum Biol. 2005 Jan 9;32(5):639–49. (for 2005;

  3. Fottrell E, Osrin D, Alcock G, Azad K, Bapat U, Beard J, et al. Cause-specific neonatal mortality: analysis of 3772 neonatal deaths in Nepal, Bangladesh, Malawi and India. Arch Dis Child - Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2015 Sep 13;100(5):F439–47. (for 2015;

  4. Kawaza K, Kinshella MLW, Hiwa T, Njirammadzi J, Banda M, Vidler M, et al. Assessing quality of newborn care at district facilities in Malawi. BMC Health Serv Res. 2020 Mar 18;20(1):1–11. (for 2020;

  5. Fleischmann C, Reichert F, Cassini A, Horner R, Harder T, Markwart R, et al. Global incidence and mortality of neonatal sepsis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Dis Child. 2021 Jan 22;0:archdischild-2020-320217. (for 2021;

  6. Minuye Birihane B, Alebachew Bayih W, Yeshambel Alemu A, Belay DM, Demis A. The burden of hyaline membrane disease, mortality and its determinant factors among preterm neonates admitted at Debre Tabor General Hospital, North Central Ethiopia: A retrospective follow up study. PLoS One. 2021;16(3):e0249365. (for 2021;

  7. Muhe LM, McClure EM, Nigussie AK, Mekasha A, Worku B, Worku A, et al. Major causes of death in preterm infants in selected hospitals in Ethiopia (SIP): a prospective, cross-sectional, observational study. Lancet Glob Heal. 2019 Aug 1;7(8):e1130–8. (for 2019;,asphyxia%20(151%20%5B14%25%5D).)

  8. Blencowe H, Lawn JE, Vazquez T, Fielder A, Gilbert C. Preterm-associated visual impairment and estimates of retinopathy of prematurity at regional and global levels for 2010. Pediatr Res. 2013 Dec;74(SUPPL. 1):35–49. (for 2013;

  9. Lee AC, Kozuki N, Blencowe H, Vos T, Bahalim A, Darmstadt GL, et al. Intrapartum-related neonatal encephalopathy incidence and impairment at regional and global levels for 2010 with trends from 1990. Pediatr Res. 2013 Dec 20;74(S1):50–72. (for 2013;

  10. Blencowe H, Lee ACC, Cousens S, Bahalim A, Narwal R, Zhong N, et al. Preterm birth-associated neurodevelopmental impairment estimates at regional and global levels for 2010. Pediatr Res. 2013 Dec;74(SUPPL. 1):17–34. (for 2013;

  11. Han Z, Mulla S, Beyene J, Liao G, McDonald SD. Maternal underweight and the risk of preterm birth and low birth weight: A systematic review and meta-analyses. Vol. 40, International Journal of Epidemiology. Int J Epidemiol; 2011. p. 65–101. (for 2011;

  12. Belachew A, Tewabe T. Neonatal sepsis and its association with birth weight and gestational age among admitted neonates in Ethiopia: Systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Pediatr. 2020 Feb 5;20(1):1–7. (for 2020;

  13. Chan GJ, Lee AC, Baqui AH, Tan J, Black RE. Risk of Early-Onset Neonatal Infection with Maternal Infection or Colonization: A Global Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. PLoS Med. 2013 Aug;10(8). (for 2013;

  14. Li Y, Wang W, Zhang D. Maternal diabetes mellitus and risk of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome: a meta-analysis. Vol. 56, Acta Diabetologica. Springer-Verlag Italia s.r.l.; 2019. p. 729–40. (for 2019;

  15. Tann CJ, Nakakeeto M, Willey BA, Sewegaba M, Webb EL, Oke I, et al. Perinatal risk factors for neonatal encephalopathy: an unmatched case-control study. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2018;103(3):F250–6. (for 2018;

  16. Cousens, S. et al. (2010) ‘Antibiotics for pre-term pre-labour rupture of membranes: Prevention of neonatal deaths due to complications of pre-term birth and infection’, International Journal of Epidemiology. Int J Epidemiol, 39(SUPPL. 1). doi: 10.1093/ije/dyq030. (for 2010;

  17. Blencowe, H. et al. (2011) ‘Clean birth and postnatal care practices to reduce neonatal deaths from sepsis and tetanus: A systematic review and Delphi estimation of mortality effect’, BMC Public Health. BioMed Central Ltd, 11(SUPPL. 3), p. S11. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-S3-S11. (for 2011;

  18. Lee, A. C. et al. (2011) ‘Neonatal resuscitation and immediate newborn assessment and stimulation for the prevention of neonatal deaths: A systematic review, meta-analysis and Delphi estimation of mortality effect’, BMC Public Health. BMC Public Health, 11(SUPPL. 3). doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-S3-S12. (for 2011;

  19. Conde-Agudelo, A., Belizán, J. M. and Diaz-Rossello, J. (2016) ‘Kangaroo mother care to reduce morbidity and mortality in low birthweight infants’, in Conde-Agudelo, A. (ed.) Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD002771.pub2. (for 2016;

  20. Roberts, D. et al. (2020) ‘Antenatal corticosteroids for accelerating fetal lung maturation for women at risk of preterm birth’, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. John Wiley and Sons Ltd. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD004454.pub3. (for 2020;

  21. Zaidi, A. K. M. et al. (2011) ‘Effect of case management on neonatal mortality due to sepsis and pneumonia’, BMC Public Health. BioMed Central, p. S13. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-S3-S13. (for 2011;

Postnatal Women

  1. Kalilani-Phiri, L. V. et al. (2010) ‘Prevalence of obstetric fistula in Malawi’, International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics. No longer published by Elsevier, 109(3), pp. 204–208. doi: 10.1016/j.ijgo.2009.12.019. (for 2010;

  2. Khaki JJ, Sithole L. Factors associated with the utilization of postnatal care services among malawian women. Malawi Med J. 2019;31(1):2–11. (for 2019;

  3. Pindani M, Phiri C, Chikazinga W, Chilinda I, Botha J, Chorwe-Sungani G. Assessing the quality of postnatal care offered to mothers and babies by Midwivein Lilongwe Distric (for 2020;

  4. Adams YJ, Stommel M, Ayoola A, Horodynski M, Malata A, Smith B. Use and Evaluation of Postpartum Care Services in Rural Malawi. J Nurs Scholarsh. 2017 Jan 1;49(1):87–95. (for 2017;

  5. Chimtembo LK, Maluwa A, Chimwaza A, Chirwa E, Pindani M. Assessment of quality of postnatal care services offered to mothers in Dedza district, Malawi. Open J Nurs. 2013 Jul 26;03(04):343–50. (for 2013;


  1. Ministry of Health Malawi, UNICEF, UNFPA, WHO, AMDD. Malawi 2010 EmONC Needs Assessment Final Report. 2010. (for 2010)

  2. Ministry of Health Malawi, USAID, UNFPA, UNICEF, CHAI, Save the Children. Malawi Emergency Obstetric and Newborn Care Needs Assessment, 2014. 2015. (for 2015;

  3. Monden CWS, Smits J. Mortality among twins and singletons in sub-Saharan Africa between 1995 and 2014: a pooled analysis of data from 90 Demographic and Health Surveys in 30 countries. Lancet Glob Heal. 2017 Jul 1;5(7):e673–9. (for 2017;

  4. Levandowski BA, Mhango C, Kuchingale E, Lunguzi J, Katengeza H, Gebreselassie H, et al. The Incidence of Induced Abortion in Malawi. Vol. 39, Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health. 2013 (for 2013;

  5. Polis CB, Mhango C, Philbin J, Chimwaza W, Chipeta E, Msusa A. Incidence of induced abortion in Malawi, 2015. Foster AM, editor. PLoS One. 2017 Apr 3;12(4):e0173639. (for 2017;

  6. Kalilani-Phiri L, Gebreselassie H, Levandowski BA, Kuchingale E, Kachale F, Kangaude G. The severity of abortion complications in malawi. Int J Gynecol Obstet. 2015;128(2):160–4. (for 2015;

  7. Antony KM, Kazembe PN, Pace RM, Levison J, Phiri H, Chiudzu G, et al. Population-Based Estimation of the Preterm Birth Rate in Lilongwe, Malawi: Making Every Birth Count. AJP Rep. 2020 Jan 1;10(1):E78–86. (for 2020;

  8. van den Broek NR, Jean-Baptiste R, Neilson JP. Factors Associated with Preterm, Early Preterm and Late Preterm Birth in Malawi. Hawkins SM, editor. PLoS One. 2014 Mar 3;9(3):e90128. (for 2014;

  9. Phiri TJ, Kasiya M, Allain T. Full Prevalence Of Gestational Diabetes In Urban Women In Blantyre, Malawi: A Cross Sectional Study And Comparison Of Who And IADPSG Criteria. 2019. (for 2019;

  10. National Statistical Office - NSO/Malawi and ICF. Malawi Demographic and Health Survey 2010. 2011. (for 2011;

  11. National Statistical Office - NSO/Malawi and ICF. Malawi Demographic and Health Survey 2015-16. 2017 Feb. (for 2017;

  12. Oaks BM, Jorgensen JM, Baldiviez LM, Adu-Afarwuah S, Maleta K, Okronipa H, et al. Prenatal iron deficiency and replete iron status are associated with adverse birth outcomes, but associations differ in Ghana and Malawi. J Nutr. 2019 Mar 1;149(3):513–21. (for 2019;

  13. National Statistical Office Malawi, Ministry of Health Malawi, CDCP. Malawi Micronutrient Survey 2015-2016. 2017. (for 2017;

  14. Adamu AL, Crampin A, Kayuni N, Amberbir A, Koole O, Phiri A, et al. Prevalence and risk factors for anemia severity and type in Malawian men and women: Urban and rural differences. Popul Health Metr. 2017 Mar 29 ;15(1):12. (for 2017;

  15. Van Den Broek NR, Ntonya C, Mhango E, White SA. Diagnosing anaemia in pregnancy in rural clinics: Assessing the potential of the haemoglobin colour scale. Bull World Health Organ. 1999;77(1):15–21. (for 1999;

  16. Senkoro EE, Mwanamsangu AH, Chuwa FS, Msuya SE, Mnali OP, Brown BG, et al. Frequency, Risk Factors, and Adverse Fetomaternal Outcomes of Placenta Previa in Northern Tanzania. J Pregnancy. 2017;2017. (for 2017;

  17. Dellicour S, Aol G, Ouma P, Yan N, Bigogo G, Hamel MJ, et al. Weekly miscarriage rates in a community-based prospective cohort study in rural western Kenya. BMJ Open. 2016;6(4). (for 2016;

  18. Calvert C, Owolabi OO, Yeung F, Pittrof R, Ganatra B, Tunçalp Ö, et al. The magnitude and severity of abortion-related morbidity in settings with limited access to abortion services: a systematic review and meta-regression. BMJ Glob Heal. 2018 Jun 29;3(3):e000692. (for 2018;

  19. Noubiap JJ, Bigna JJ, Nyaga UF, Jingi AM, Kaze AD, Nansseu JR, et al. The burden of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in Africa: A systematic review and meta‐analysis. J Clin Hypertens. 2019 Apr 7;21(4):479–88. (for 2019;

  20. Onwughara CE, Moodley D, Valashiya N, Sebitloane M. Preterm prelabour rupture of membranes (PPROM) and pregnancy outcomes in association with HIV-1 infection in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2020 Apr 9;20(1):1–8. (for 2020;

  21. Takai IU, Sayyadi BM, Galadanci HS. Antepartum Hemorrhage: A Retrospective Analysis from a Northern Nigerian Teaching Hospital. Int J Appl Basic Med Res. 2017;7(2):112. (for 2017;

  22. Yang Q, Wen SW, Oppenheimer L, Chen XK, Black D, Gao J, et al. Association of caesarean delivery for first birth with placenta praevia and placental abruption in second pregnancy. BJOG An Int J Obstet Gynaecol. 2007 May;114(5):609–13. A (for 2007;

  23. Baingana RK, Enyaru JK, Tjalsma H, Swinkels DW, Davidsson L. The aetiology of anaemia during pregnancy: A study to evaluate the contribution of iron deficiency and common infections in pregnant Ugandan women. Public Health Nutr. 2015;18(8):1423–35. (for 2015;

  24. Wagner KS, Ronsmans C, Thomas SL, Calvert C, Adler A, Ganaba R, et al. Women who experience obstetric haemorrhage are at higher risk of anaemia, in both rich and poor countries. Vol. 17, Tropical Medicine and International Health. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012. p. 9–22. (for 2012;

  25. Santos S, Voerman E, Amiano P, Barros H, Beilin LJ, Bergström A, et al. Impact of maternal body mass index and gestational weight gain on pregnancy complications: an individual participant data meta-analysis of European, North American and Australian cohorts. BJOG An Int J Obstet Gynaecol. 2019 Jul 1;126(8):984–95. (for 2019;

  26. Laine K, Murzakanova G, Sole KB, Pay AD, Heradstveit S, Raïsänen S. Prevalence and risk of pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension in twin pregnancies: A population-based register study. BMJ Open. 2019 Jul 1;9(7). (for 2019;

  27. Meazaw MW, Chojenta C, Muluneh MD, Loxton D. Systematic and meta-analysis of factors associated with preeclampsia and eclampsia in sub-Saharan Africa. PLoS One. 2020 Aug 1;15(8 August):e0237600. (for 2020;

  28. Bartsch E, Medcalf KE, Park AL, Ray JG, Al-Rubaie ZTA, Askie LM, et al. Clinical risk factors for pre-eclampsia determined in early pregnancy: Systematic review and meta-analysis of large cohort studies. BMJ. 2016 Apr 19;353. (for 2016;

  29. Laelago T, Yohannes T, Tsige G. Determinants of preterm birth among mothers who gave birth in East Africa: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Vol. 46, Italian Journal of Pediatrics. BioMed Central Ltd.; 2020. p. 1–14. (for 2020;

  30. Tabatabaee HR, Zahedi A, Etemad K, Valadbeigi T, Mahdavi S, Enayatrad M, et al. Risk of stillbirth in women with gestational diabetes and high blood pressure. Iran J Public Health. 2020;49(4):773–81. (for 2020;

  31. Xiong T, Mu Y, Liang J, Zhu J, Li X, Li J, et al. Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and stillbirth rates: A facility-based study in China. Bull World Health Organ. 2018;96(8):531–9. (for 2018;

Conditions of Early Childhood

Acute Lower Respiratory Infection

  1. McCollum, E. D. et al. Impact of the 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine on Clinical and Hypoxemic Childhood Pneumonia over Three Years in Central Malawi: An Observational Study. PLoS One 12, e0168209 (2017) (for 2017;

  2. Lazzerini, M. et al. Mortality and its risk factors in Malawian children admitted to hospital with clinical pneumonia, 2001-12: A retrospective observational study. Lancet Glob. Heal. (2016) (for 2016;

  3. Johansson, E. W., Nsona, H., Carvajal-Aguirre, L., Amouzou, A. & Hildenwall, H. Determinants of Integrated Management of hildhood Illness (IMCI) non-severe pneumonia classification and care in Malawi health facilities: Analysis of a national facility census. J. Glob. Health 7, (2017). (for 2017;

  4. Uwemedimo, O. T. et al. Distribution and determinants of pneumonia diagnosis using Integrated Management of Childhood Illness guidelines: a nationally representative study in Malawi. BMJ Glob. Heal. 3, e000506 (2018). (for 2018;

  5. Balk, D. S. et al. Lung ultrasound compared to chest X-ray for diagnosis of pediatric pneumonia: A meta-analysis. Pediatr. Pulmonol. 53, 1130–1139 (2018) (for 2018;

  6. O, K. L. et al. Causes of severe pneumonia requiring hospital admission in children without HIV infection from Africa and Asia: the PERCH multi-country case-control study. (2019) (for 2019;

  7. Walker, C. L. F. et al. Global burden of childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea. Lancet (London, England) 381, 1405–1416 (2013) (for 2013;

  8. Jackson, S. et al. Risk factors for severe acute lower respiratory infections in children - a systematic review and meta-analysis. Croat. Med. J. 54, 110–121 (2013). (for 2013;

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  2. Ba-Diop et al. Epidemiology, causes, and treatment of epilepsy in sub-Saharan Africa. Lancet Neurol 2014; 13: 1029–44 2014 (for 2014)

  3. Dent et al. Prevalence of Active Epilepsy in a Rural Area in South Tanzania: A Door-to-Door Survey Epilepsia 2005, 46(12):1963–1969. (for 2005)

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Road Traffic Injuries

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  2. Banza, Leonard Ngoie, Jared Gallaher, Eva Dybvik, Anthony Charles, Geir Hallan, Jan-Erik Gjertsen, Nyengo Mkandawire, Carlos Varela, and Sven Young. 2018. “The Rise in Road Traffic Injuries in Lilongwe, Malawi A Snapshot of the Growing Epidemic of Trauma in Low Income Countries.” International Journal of Surgery Open 10: 55–60. (for 2018;

  3. Chagomerana, Maganizo B., Jared Tomlinson, Sven Young, Mina C. Hosseinipour, Leonard Banza, and Clara N. Lee. 2017. “High Morbidity and Mortality after Lower Extremity Injuries in Malawi: A Prospective Cohort Study of 905 Patients.” International Journal of Surgery 39 (March): 23–29. (for 2017;

  4. Eaton, Jessica, Asma Bilal Hanif, Joanna Grudziak, and Anthony Charles. 2017. “Epidemiology, Management, and Functional Outcomes of Traumatic Brain Injury in Sub-Saharan Africa.” World Neurosurgery 108 (December): 650–55. (for 2017;

  5. Eaton, Jessica, Cornelius Mukuzunga, Joanna Grudziak, and Anthony Charles. 2019. “Characteristics and Outcomes of Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury in a Low-Resource Setting.” Tropical Doctor 49 (1): 62–64. (for 2019;

  6. Gallaher, Jared, Malcolm Jefferson, Carlos Varela, Rebecca Maine, Bruce Cairns, and Anthony Charles. 2019. “The Malawi Trauma Score: A Model for Predicting Trauma-Associated Mortality in a Resource-Poor Setting.” Injury 50 (9): 1552–57. (for 2019;

  7. Grudziak, Joanna, Cornelius Mukuzunga, Caroline Melhado, Sven Young, Leonard Banza, Bruce Cairns, and Anthony Charles. 2019. “Etiology of Major Limb Amputations at a Tertiary Care Centre in Malawi.” Malawi Medical Journal 31 (4): 244–48. (for 2019;

  8. Katundu, Kondwani G.H., Timothy W. Mutafya, Noel C. Lozani, Patrick M. Nyirongo, and Molly E. Uebele. 2018. “An Observational Study of Perioperative Nutrition and Postoperative Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Laparotomy at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital in Blantyre, Malawi.” Malawi Medical Journal 30 (2): 79–85. (for 2018;

  9. Khuluza, Felix, and Christine Haefele-Abah. 2019. “The Availability, Prices and Affordability of Essential Medicines in Malawi: A Cross-Sectional Study.” Edited by Khin Thet Wai. PLOS ONE 14 (2): e0212125. (for 2019;

  10. Lavy, Chris, Alistair Tindall, Colin Steinlechner, Nyengo Mkandawire, and Sandy Chimangeni. 2007. “Surgery in Malawi - A National Survey of Activity in Rural and Urban Hospitals.” Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England 89 (7): 722–24. (for 2007;

  11. Mkandawire, Nyengo, Christopher Ngulube, and Christopher Lavy. 2008. “Orthopaedic Clinical Officer Program in Malawi: A Model for Providing Orthopaedic Care.” In Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 466:2385–91. (for 2008;

  12. Ng’ambi, Wingston, Tara Mangal, Andrew Phillips, Tim Colbourn, Joseph Mfutso-Bengo, Paul Revill, and Timothy B. Hallett. 2020. “Factors Associated with Healthcare Seeking Behaviour for Children in Malawi: 2016.” Tropical Medicine and International Health 25 (12): 1486–95. (for 2020;

  13. Ng’ambi, Wingston, Tara Mangal, Andrew Phillips, Tim Colbourn, Dominic Nkhoma, Joseph Mfutso-Bengo, Paul Revill, and Timothy B. Hallett. 2020. “A Cross-Sectional Study on Factors Associated with Health Seeking Behaviour of Malawians Aged 15+ Years in 2016 | Malawi Medical Journal.” Malawi Medical Journal 32 (4). (for 2020;

  14. Samuel, Jonathan C., Edward Sankhulani, Javeria S. Qureshi, Paul Baloyi, Charles Thupi, Clara N. Lee, William C. Miller, Bruce A. Cairns, and Anthony G. Charles. 2012. “Under-Reporting of Road Traffic Mortality in Developing Countries: Application of a Capture-Recapture Statistical Model to Refine Mortality Estimates.” Edited by Vittoria Colizza. Plos One 7 (2): e31091. (for 2012;

  15. Schade, Alexander Thomas, Master Yesaya, Jeremy Bates, Claude Martin, and William James Harrison. 2020. “The Malawi Orthopaedic Association/Ao Alliance Guidelines and Standards for Open Fracture Management in Malawi: A National Consensus Statement.” Malawi Medical Journal 32 (3): 112–19. (for 2020;

  16. Schlottmann, Francisco, Anna F. Tyson, Bruce A. Cairns, Carlos Varela, and Anthony G. Charles. 2017. “Road Traffic Collisions in Malawi: Trends and Patterns of Mortality on Scene.” Malawi Medical Journal 29 (4): 301–5. (for 2017;

  17. Sundet, Mads, Joanna Grudziak, Anthony Charles, Leonard Banza, Carlos Varela, and Sven Young. 2018. “Paediatric Road Traffic Injuries in Lilongwe, Malawi: An Analysis of 4776 Consecutive Cases.” Tropical Doctor 48 (4): 316–22. (for 2018;

  18. Sundet, Mads, Chifundo Kajombo, Gift Mulima, Stig Tore Bogstrand, Carlos Varela, Sven Young, Asbjørg S. Christophersen, and Hallvard Gjerde. 2020. “Prevalence of Alcohol Use among Road Traffic Crash Victims Presenting to a Malawian Central Hospital: A Cross-Sectional Study.” Traffic Injury Prevention. (for 2020;

  19. Tyson, Anna F., Carlos Varela, Bruce A. Cairns, and Anthony G. Charles. 2015. “Hospital Mortality Following Trauma: An Analysis of a Hospital-Based Injury Surveillance Registry in Sub-Saharan Africa.” Journal of Surgical Education 72 (4): e66-72. (for 2015;

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  21. Zafar, Syed Nabeel, Joseph K. Canner, Neeraja Nagarajan, Adam L. Kushner, Shailvi Gupta, Tu M. Tran, Neeraja Nagarajan, et al. 2018. “Road Traffic Injuries: Cross-Sectional Cluster Randomized Countrywide Population Data from 4 Low-Income Countries.” International Journal of Surgery 52 (April): 237–42. (for 2018;

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  23. Vos, Theo, Ryan M. Barber, Brad Bell, Amelia Bertozzi-Villa, Stan Biryukov, Ian Bolliger, Fiona Charlson, et al. 2015. “Global, Regional, and National Incidence, Prevalence, and Years Lived with Disability for 301 Acute and Chronic Diseases and Injuries in 188 Countries, 1990-2013: A Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.” The Lancet 386 (9995): 743–800. (for 2015;

  24. Tian, Hao, Liangxi Wang, Weiguo Xie, Chuanan Shen, Guanghua Guo, Jiaqi Liu, Chunmao Han, et al. 2018. “Epidemiologic and Clinical Characteristics of Severe Burn Patients: Results of a Retrospective Multicenter Study in China, 2011–2015.” Burns & Trauma 6: 2011–15. (for 2018;

  25. Stephan, Katharina, Stephan Huber, Sandra Häberle, Karl Georg Kanz, Volker Bühren, Martijn Van Griensven, Bernhard Meyer, Peter Biberthaler, Rolf Lefering, and Stefan Huber-Wagner. 2015. “Spinal Cord Injury - Incidence, Prognosis, and Outcome: An Analysis of the TraumaRegister DGU.” Spine Journal 15 (9): 1994–2001. (for 2015;

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